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Aristotle the politics essay
has the large resources needed to promote the common good. In saying this, Aristotle was undermining the legitimacy of the two most significant sources of slaves. Marriage for girls in Athens typically took place at the age of thirteen or fourteen). Moderation keeps us from overindulging in pleasure or seeking too much of the limited goods. (1175b246) Aristotle's statement implies that in order to determine whether (for example) the pleasure of virtuous activity is more desirable than that of eating, we are not to attend to the pleasures themselves but to the activities with which we are pleased. Aristotle assumes, on the contrary, not simply that these common passions are sometimes appropriate, but that it is essential that every human being learn how to master them and experience them in the right way at the right times. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980. Although the study of virtue Aristotle has just completed is meant to be helpful to all human beings who have been brought up welleven those who have no intention of pursuing a political careerit is also designed to serve a larger purpose. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1999.
Existing Cities: Sparta, Crete, Carthage, the, politics, Book III, who Is the Citizen? The young person learning to acquire the virtues must develop a love of doing what is kalon and a strong aversion to its oppositethe aischron, the shameful and ugly. Here the linkage between speech and reason is clear: the purpose of speech, a purpose assigned to men by nature, is to reveal what is advantageous and harmful, and by doing so to reveal what is good and bad, just and unjust. We try to develop a plan for living that unites all our various purposes.
Given that this is the case, a regime that allows people to do whatever they want is in fact flawed, for it is not guiding them in the direction of the good life. Aristotle says of democracies that "Democracies undergo revolution particularly on account of the wanton behavior of the popular leaders" (1304b20). He briefly mentions the point that pleasures compete with each other, so that the enjoyment of one kind of activity impedes other activities that cannot be carried out at the same time (1153a2022). Human beings are unavoidably different, and this difference, as we saw earlier, is the reason cities were formed in the first place, because difference within the city allows for specialization and greater self-sufficiency. As would be expected, he explicitly ties it to the question of the best way of life: "Concerning the best regime, one who is going to undertake the investigation appropriate to it must necessarily discuss first what the most choiceworthy way of life. In the case of democracy it is best if the farmers rule, because farmers will not have the time to attend the assembly, so they will stay away and will let the laws rule (VI.4). Friendships based on advantage alone or pleasure alone deserve to be called friendships because in full-fledged friendships these two properties, advantage and pleasure, are present. There can be an enduring polity only when the middle class is able either to rule on its own or in conjunction with either of the other two groups, for in this way it can moderate their excesses: "Where the multitude of middling persons predominates. It is important to remember that the city was not subordinate to a state making a reference page for a research paper or nation, the way that cities are today; it was sovereign over the territory that it controlled.
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